Author(s):Kolb AW, Adams M, Cabot EL, Craven M, Brandt CR. Multiplex sequencing of seven ocular herpes simplex virus type-1 genomes: phylogeny, sequence variability, and SNP distribution. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011 Nov 25;52(12):9061-73. doi: 10.1167/iovs.11-7812.
PURPOSE Little is known about the role of sequence variation in the pathology of HSV-1 keratitis virus. The goal was to show that a multiplex, high-throughput genome-sequencing approach is feasible for simultaneously sequencing seven HSV-1 ocular strains.
METHODS A genome sequencer was used to sequence the HSV-1 ocular isolates TFT401, 134, CJ311, CJ360, CJ394, CJ970, and OD4, in a single lane. Reads were mapped to the HSV-1 strain 17 reference genome by high-speed sequencing. ClustalW was used for alignment, and the Mega 4 package was used for phylogenetic analysis (www.megasoftware.net). Simplot was used to compare genetic variability and high-speed sequencing was used to identify SNPs (developed by Stuart Ray, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, http://sray.med.som.jhml.edu/SCRoftware/simplot).
RESULTS Approximately 95% to 99% of the seven genomes were sequenced in a single lane with average coverage ranging from 224 to 1345. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequenced genome regions revealed at least three clades. Each strain had approximately 200 coding SNPs compared to strain 17, and these were evenly spaced along the genomes. Four genes were highly conserved, and six were more variable. Reduced coverage was obtained in the highly GC-rich terminal repeat regions.
CONCLUSIONS Multiplex sequencing is a cost-effective way to obtain the genomic sequences of ocular HSV-1 isolates with sufficient coverage of the unique regions for genomic analysis. The number of SNPs and their distribution will be useful for analyzing the genetics of virulence, and the sequence data will be useful for studying HSV-1 evolution and for the design of structure-function studies.