Author(s): Farnoodian M, Sorenson CM, Sheibani N. Negative Regulators of Angiogenesis, Ocular Vascular Homeostasis, and Pathogenesis and Treatment of Exudative AMD. J Ophthalmic Vis Res. 2018 Oct-Dec;13(4):470-486. doi: 10.4103/jovr.jovr_67_18. Review.
Angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels from pre-existing capillaries, is very tightly regulated and normally does not occur except during developmental and reparative processes. This tight regulation is maintained by a balanced production of positive and negative regulators, and alterations under pathological conditions such as retinopathy of prematurity, diabetic retinopathy, and age-related macular degeneration can lead to growth of new and abnormal blood vessels. Although the role of proangiogenic factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor has been extensively studied, little is known about the roles of negative regulators of angiogenesis in the pathogenesis of these diseases. Here, we will discuss the role of thrombospondin-1 (TSP1), one of the first known endogenous inhibitors of angiogenesis, in ocular vascular homeostasis, and how its alterations may contribute to the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration and choroidal neovascularization. We will also discuss its potential utility as a therapeutic target for treatment of ocular diseases with a neovascular component.