Feline neovascular vitreoretinopathy (FNV) is a newly recognized rare condition affecting kittens and young domestic cats. This study investigated the clinical and pathologic findings in 22 cats with FNV. In affected cats, ophthalmoscopy of the fundus (when visible) revealed avascular peripheral retinae and epiretinal vascular membranes. Frequent nonspecific clinical findings were buphthalmos ( n = 21), medically uncontrollable glaucoma ( n = 22), and lenticular abnormalities ( n = 13). Anterior segment dysgenesis (ASD) was detected clinically in affected cats ( n = 6). The fellow eye was affected in 11 of 18 cats to a variable degree or appeared clinically normal in 7 of 18 cats. The globes were examined histologically and using immunohistochemistry for vimentin, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), synaptophysin, neurofilament, laminin, factor VIII-related antigen (FVIII-RA), and smooth muscle actin (SMA). Histologically, diagnostic features included laminin-positive epiretinal vascular membranes affecting the central retina, with an avascular peripheral retina and gliosis. Enucleated globes exhibited multiple additional abnormalities, including corneal disease ( n = 15), anterior segment dysgenesis ( n = 21), lymphoplasmacytic anterior uveitis ( n = 19), peripheral anterior synechiae ( n = 20), retinal degeneration ( n = 22), and retinal detachment ( n = 19). Gliotic retinae labeled strongly for GFAP and vimentin with reduced expression of synaptophysin and neurofilament, consistent with degeneration or lack of differentiation. While an avascular peripheral retina and epiretinal fibrovascular membranes are also salient features of retinopathy of prematurity, there is no evidence to support hyperoxic damage in cats with FNV. The cause remains unknown.