Author(s): Kelbsch C, Strasser T, Chen Y, Feigl B, Gamlin PD, Kardon R, Peters T, Roecklein KA, Steinhauer SR, Szabadi E, Zele AJ, Wilhelm H, Wilhelm BJ. Standards in Pupillography. Front Neurol. 2019 Feb 22;10:129. doi: 10.3389/fneur.2019.00129. eCollection 2019. Review. Erratum in: Front Neurol. 2019 Mar 27;10:371.
Journal: Frontiers In Neurology, Volume 10, 2019
The number of research groups studying the pupil is increasing, as is the number of publications. Consequently, new standards in pupillography are needed to formalize the methodology including recording conditions, stimulus characteristics, as well as suitable parameters of evaluation. Since the description of intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) there has been an increased interest and broader application of pupillography in ophthalmology as well as other fields including psychology and chronobiology. Color pupillography plays an important role not only in research but also in clinical observational and therapy studies like gene therapy of hereditary retinal degenerations and psychopathology. Stimuli can vary in size, brightness, duration, and wavelength. Stimulus paradigms determine whether rhodopsin-driven rod responses, opsin-driven cone responses, or melanopsin-driven ipRGC responses are primarily elicited. Background illumination, adaptation state, and instruction for the participants will furthermore influence the results. This standard recommends a minimum set of variables to be used for pupillography and specified in the publication methodologies. Initiated at the 32nd International Pupil Colloquium 2017 in Morges, Switzerland, the aim of this manuscript is to outline standards in pupillography based on current knowledge and experience of pupil experts in order to achieve greater comparability of pupillographic studies. Such standards will particularly facilitate the proper application of pupillography by researchers new to the field. First we describe general standards, followed by specific suggestions concerning the demands of different targets of pupil research: the afferent and efferent reflex arc, pharmacology, psychology, sleepiness-related research and animal studies.