A clinicopathological study of 17 cases of ocular surface xanthogranuloma in dogs.

Publications // Richard Dubielzig // Sep 24 2019

PubMed ID: 31544315

Author(s):

Journal: Veterinary Ophthalmology, Sep 2019

OBJECTIVE To evaluate the clinical, histopathological, and immunohistochemical features of 17 cases of ocular surface xanthogranuloma (OSX) in dogs.

METHODS Archived records from the Comparative Ocular Pathology Laboratory of Wisconsin (COPLOW) were searched for cases of canine OSX. Cases were evaluated for lipid-laden macrophages and Touton giant cells. Seventeen cases matching those criteria were identified (1993-2018). Clinical and epidemiological data were collected from the submission forms and additional follow-up survey.

RESULTS Ocular surface xanthogranuloma in dogs presented as small bland nodules. OSX commonly occurred at the limbus (8/17) or cornea (4/17). Three of 17 affected animals were less than 1-year-old and the average age was 6.9 years (range 0.7-14 years). Fourteen of 17 cases did not report any lipid or metabolic abnormalities. Histologically, lesions were composed mainly of dense sheets of vacuolated lipid-laden macrophages and Touton giant cells with scant additional inflammatory cells and an intact overlying epithelium. No recurrence was noted in cases where complete surgical resection was achieved, and medical treatment either pre or post-resection led to only partial resolution.

CONCLUSIONS Xanthogranulomas are histiocytic lesions characterized by abundant lipid-laden macrophages. The authors use the term, ocular surface xanthogranuloma, to describe nodules with rigidly defined cellular characteristics. Although these lesions share characteristics with human limbal xanthogranulomas, further investigation is needed to suggest the different subsets that have been reported in the medical literature. Complete surgical excision is the most effective treatment for OSX in dogs, and intralesional triamcinolone and topical steroids can be useful adjunctive therapies to surgery.

© 2019 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.