Incidence of Hearing Impairment and Changes in Pure-Tone Average Across Generations.

Cruickshanks Lab // Kleins Lab // Publications // Nov 19 2020

PubMed ID: 33211071

Author(s): Paulsen AJ, Fischer ME, Pinto A, Merten N, Dillard LK, Schubert CR, Huang GH, Klein BEK, Tweed TS, Cruickshanks KJ. Incidence of Hearing Impairment and Changes in Pure-Tone Average Across Generations. JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2020 Nov 19. doi: 10.1001/jamaoto.2020.4352. [Epub ahead of print] PMID 33211071

Journal: Jama Otolaryngology Head & Neck Surgery, Nov 2020

Importance Age-adjusted prevalence of hearing impairment (HI) decreased across generations in the 20th century, suggesting that HI is partially preventable. It is not known whether HI incidence differs by generation.

Objectives To examine whether HI incidence and change in pure-tone average (PTA) differ by generation and identify factors underlying these differences.

Design, Setting, and Participants This cohort study used data from the Epidemiology of Hearing Loss Study (EHLS) and Beaver Dam Offspring Study (BOSS), a pair of studies of adults in Beaver Dam, Wisconsin. Baseline examinations occurred from 1993 to 1995 in the EHLS and 2005 to 2008 in BOSS, with two 5-year follow-up examinations in each cohort. This longitudinal cohort study assessed 3651 participants without HI at baseline who had follow-up data.

Main Outcomes and Measures The primary outcome was incident HI measured by pure-tone audiometry, defined as PTA greater than 25-dB hearing level (dB HL) in either ear. Associations of 5-year incidence were estimated by relative risks (RRs) and 10-year cumulative incidence with generation, as categorized by commonly used sociodemographic descriptors of year of birth, by hazard ratios (HRs). The 10-year change in PTA was investigated using a generation × time interaction term in generalized estimating equation models.

Results Among the 3651 participants (mean [SD] age at baseline 53.1 [10.6] years; 2255 [61.8%] female; and 3567 [97.7%] non-Hispanic White), the 5-year HI incidence was 14.1% (95% CI, 13.0%-15.3%) and the 10-year cumulative incidence was 26.0% (95% CI, 24.6%-27.6%). The incidence increased with age. The risk of 5-year incident HI decreased by generation (RR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.66-0.97) when adjusting for multiple covariates. The decreased risk was similar in the 10-year period (HR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.73-1.01). The PTA change rate (per 5 years of follow-up) decreased by generation, with the Greatest Generation (born 1901-1924) experiencing the highest rate (7.03 dB HL). The rates were all significantly lower for the other generations (Silent Generation [born 1925-1945], 3.30 dB HL; Baby Boom Generation [born 1946-1964], 3.36 dB HL; and Generation X [born 1965-1984], 2.33 dB HL).

Conclusions and Relevance This study suggests that the risk of HI and rate of PTA change is lower for the Silent Generation and Baby Boom Generation compared with the Greatest Generation. Part of this lower risk is likely associated with changes in modifiable factors. A potential continued benefit may exist for Generation X. Combined with the reduced risk of HI for the Silent Generation and Baby Boom Generation, this finding implies that the future HI burden may be lower than current estimates suggest.