Author(s): Keller KE, Peters DM. Pathogenesis of glaucoma: Extracellular matrix dysfunction in the trabecular meshwork-A review. Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2022 Jan 17. doi: 10.1111/ceo.14027. [Epub ahead of print] Review. PMID 35037377
Journal: Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology, Jan 2022
The trabecular meshwork regulates aqueous humour outflow from the anterior chamber of the eye. It does this by establishing a tunable outflow resistance, defined by the interplay between cells and their extracellular matrix (ECM) milieu, and the molecular interactions between ECM proteins. During normal tissue homeostasis, the ECM is remodelled and trabecular cell behaviour is modified, permitting increased aqueous fluid outflow to maintain intraocular pressure (IOP) within a relatively narrow physiological pressure. Dysfunction in the normal homeostatic process leads to increased outflow resistance and elevated IOP, which is a primary risk factor for glaucoma. This review delineates some of the changes in the ECM that lead to gross as well as some more subtle changes in the structure and function of the ECM, and their impact on trabecular cell behaviour. These changes are discussed in the context of outflow resistance and glaucoma.