The compounds 2,3,5,6-tetrachloro-4-pyridinol (TCP) and the structurally related imidazopyridines (IP) cause hemorrhage and lower the plasma prothrombin level in animals. In vitro, TCP and the IP are more potent inhibitors of both the vitamin K dependent carboxylase which catalyzes the posttranslational gamma-carboxylation of specific glutamyl residues in proteins and the related vitamin K epoxidase activity than they are either of vitamin K epoxide reductase or of NAD-(P)H-K oxidoreductase. TCP and IP, as is the case with the coumarin and indandione anticoagulants, are competitive inhibitors of NAD(P)H-K oxidoreductae with respect to NADH. The epoxide reductase from coumarin-resistant rats is quite resistant to inhibition not only by warfarin but also by the IP, and to a lesser extent by TCP. When interpreted in light of published in vivo experiments, the data suggest that the principal site of anticoagulant action of the IP, but not TCP, is the epoxide reductase. The anticoagulant effect of TCP may be inhibition of the carboxylase itself. TCP is a significantly more potent inhibitor of the carboxylase and epoxidase than the IP; it inhibits both the enzymatic activities to the same degree with 50% inhibition observed at about 10(-5) M. Inhibition of the carboxylase by TCP is not competitive with respect to the pentapeptide substrate phenylalanyl-leucylglutamylglutamylleucine nor with respect to the following components of the in vitro carboxylase assay: imidazole, pyridoxal 5′-phosphate, dithiothreitol, KCl, sodium bicarbonate, oxygen, and vitamin K. The order of addition of components of the assay relative to the addition of inhibitor did not affect the degree of inhibition. Inhibition is readily reversed in experiments designed to dissociate an enzyme-inhibitor complex. Analysis of double-inhibitor experiments suggests that TCP and IP have the same binding site on the carboxylase.