HLA-DR and the 5′ insulin gene polymorphism in insulin-dependent diabetes.

Kleins Lab // Publications // Dec 01 1991

PubMed ID: 1961115

Author(s): Raffel LJ, Vadheim CM, Klein R, Moss SE, Riley WJ, Maclaren NK, Rotter JI. HLA-DR and the 5′ insulin gene polymorphism in insulin-dependent diabetes. Metabolism. 1991 Dec;40(12):1244-8. PMID 1961115

Journal: Metabolism: Clinical And Experimental, Volume 40, Issue 12, Dec 1991

While the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region provides the major susceptibility for insulin-dependent (type I) diabetes mellitus (IDDM), other (non-HLA) genes must also play a role. Population studies have shown an increased frequency of small insertions (class I alleles) 5′ to the insulin gene in individuals with IDDM, suggesting that this region may account for part, if not all, of the non-HLA genetic predisposition. However, no data are available as to whether the relation of the insulin gene polymorphism is to a DR-defined subset of IDDM or with all of IDDM. To test the hypothesis that specific combinations of HLA and insulin gene polymorphism alleles may interact in providing susceptibility for IDDM, HLA-DR and 5′ insulin gene insertion size have been determined in 300 individuals with IDDM. The frequency of class 1 insulin gene alleles in the entire sample is 0.79 and the frequency of class 3 alleles (large inserts) is 0.20. The frequencies of class 1 alleles were equal across all DR classes: 0.79 in the DR3/X IDDM subjects, 0.80 in the DR4/X, 0.79 in the DR3/4, and 0.78 in those with DRX/X. Additionally, the frequencies of class 1/1 homozygotes and 1/3 heterozygotes were similar between HLA-DR types. These results suggest that the HLA region and the region 5′ to the insulin gene provide independent and nonsynergistic genetic risks for IDDM.