Apraclonidine and brimonidine effects on anterior ocular and cardiovascular physiology in normal and sympathectomized monkeys.

Kaufman Lab // Publications // Dec 01 1994

PubMed ID: 7698258

Author(s): Gabelt BT, Robinson JC, Hubbard WC, Peterson CM, Debink N, Wadhwa A, Kaufman PL. Apraclonidine and brimonidine effects on anterior ocular and cardiovascular physiology in normal and sympathectomized monkeys. Exp Eye Res. 1994 Dec;59(6):633-44. PMID 7698258

Journal: Experimental Eye Research, Volume 59, Issue 6, Dec 1994

Apraclonidine and brimonidine administered topically to one eye of ketamine-anesthetized normal cynomolgus monkeys each produced a dose-related bilateral reduction in intraocular pressure which was not dependent on intact sympathetic innervation. Brimonidine was more potent and efficacious (10-12 mmHg maximum intraocular pressure reduction 2 hr after 200 micrograms) but produced a shorter-lasting effect than apraclonidine (4 mmHg maximum intraocular pressure reduction 1-6 hr after 600-1000 micrograms). Apraclonidine had little effect on pupil diameter, but brimonidine produced a dose-related bilateral miosis which was dependent on intact sympathetic innervation. Neither drug significantly affected refractive error. Topical brimonidine, but not apraclonidine, produced a dose-dependent reduction in mean arterial blood pressure, while both drugs lowered heart rate. A dose-dependent bilateral reduction in aqueous humor flow rate calculated over a 6-hr period following drug administration was produced by both topical apraclonidine (maximum 30-35% reduction with 600 micrograms) and brimonidine (maximum 30-45% reduction with 50-250 micrograms), which was not dependent on intact sympathetic innervation. Maintenance of blood pressure by intravenous infusion of angiotensin II had no effect on the aqueous humor flow suppression produced by 100 micrograms of topical brimonidine, but pentobarbital anesthesia abolished it. Intracameral injection of 10 micrograms brimonidine in rhesus monkeys produced an ipsilateral approximately 15% reduction in aqueous humor flow calculated for the 1-3 hr post-injection period. The cardiovascular and contralateral ocular effects observed with both drugs are presumably related to the monkeys’ small body weight, and the magnitude of IOP reduction for a given degree of flow suppression would be greater in hypertensive than in normotensive eyes. Caution must therefore be exercised in extrapolating from our data in ocular normotensive monkeys to the glaucomatous human.