Author(s): Barzilay JI, Peterson D, Cushman M, Heckbert SR, Cao JJ, Blaum C, Tracy RP, Klein R, Herrington DM. The relationship of cardiovascular risk factors to microalbuminuria in older adults with or without diabetes mellitus or hypertension: the Cardiovascular Health Study. Am J Kidney Dis. 2004 Jul;44(1):25-34. PMID 15211434
Journal: American Journal Of Kidney Diseases : The Official Journal Of The National Kidney Foundation, Volume 44, Issue 1, Jul 2004
BACKGROUND Microalbuminuria is a risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD). It occurs most commonly in the settings of diabetes and hypertension. The mechanisms by which it increases CHD risk are uncertain.
METHODS We examined the cross-sectional association of microalbuminuria with a broad range of CHD risk factors in 3 groups of adults aged 65 years or older with and without microalbuminuria: those with (1) no diabetes or hypertension (n = 1,098), (2) hypertension only (n = 1,450), and (3) diabetes with or without hypertension (n = 465).
RESULTS Three factors were related to microalbuminuria in all 3 groups: age, elevated systolic blood pressure, and markers of systemic inflammation. In patients with neither diabetes nor hypertension, increasing C-reactive protein levels were associated with microalbuminuria (odds ratio per 1-mg/L increase, 1.46; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.15 to 1.84). Among those with diabetes, an increase in white blood cell (WBC) count was associated with microalbuminuria (odds ratio per 1,000-cell/mL increase, 2.57; 95% CI, 1.12 to 5.89). Among those with hypertension, an increase in WBC count (odds ratio per 1,000-cell/mL increase, 1.83; 95% CI, 1.04 to 3.23) and fibrinogen level (odds ratio per 10-mg/dL increase, 1.02; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.05) were significantly associated with microalbuminuria. In all 3 groups, prevalent CHD was related to an elevated WBC count. In none of the 3 groups was brachial artery reactivity to ischemia, an in vivo marker of endothelial function, related to microalbuminuria.
CONCLUSION Microalbuminuria is associated with age, systolic blood pressure, and markers of inflammation. These associations reflect potential mechanisms by which microalbuminuria is related to CHD risk.