Author(s): Knudtson MD, Klein R, Lee KE, Reinke JO, Danforth LG, Wealti AM, Moore E, Klein BE. A longitudinal study of nonvitamin, nonmineral supplement use: prevalence, associations, and survival in an aging population. Ann Epidemiol. 2007 Dec;17(12):933-9. Epub 2007 Sep 24. PMID 17890106
Journal: Annals Of Epidemiology, Volume 17, Issue 12, Dec 2007
PURPOSE We sought to describe population and survival characteristics in nonvitamin, nonmineral (NVNM) supplement users in a population-based cohort study.
METHODS People from 43 to 86 years of age living in Beaver Dam, Wisconsin, participated in a baseline examination from 1988 to 1990 (n = 4,926) and three follow-up examinations at 5-year intervals (n = 3,722, 2,962, 2,375 at each successive examination). Medication and supplement use, medical and lifestyle factors were collected during the examination and survival was monitored through 2002.
RESULTS NVNM supplement use increased from 5% at baseline, to 6% at the second, to 21% at the third to 30% at the fourth examination. In general, younger age, vitamin or mineral use, and taking more medications was directly related to NVNM supplement use, while current smoking and history of other systemic diseases (e.g., cardiovascular disease, cancer) was inversely related to NVNM supplement use. After adjusting for age, sex, and other medical and lifestyle factors, users of NVNM supplements had lower mortality (hazard ratio, 0.74; 95% confidence interval, 0.57-0.95, p = 0.02) than nonusers.
CONCLUSIONS NVNM supplement users had a healthier lifestyle and fewer co-morbid medical conditions and were more likely to survive after adjusting for these factors than non-users.