Author(s):Klein BE, Knudtson MD, Lee KE, Reinke JO, Danforth LG, Wealti AM, Moore E, Klein R. Supplements and age-related eye conditions the Beaver Dam Eye Study. Ophthalmology. 2008 Jul;115(7):1203-8. Epub 2007 Nov 12. PMID 17997484
OBJECTIVE To investigate the association of use of vitamin, mineral, and nonvitamin nonmineral supplements with common age-related eye diseases.
DESIGN Population-based prospective study with incidence data.
PARTICIPANTS Subjects were participants in the Beaver Dam Eye Study who contributed data in 1988 to 1990 (n = 4926), 1993 to 1995 (n = 3722), 1998 to 2000 (n = 2962), and 2003 to 2005 (n = 2375).
METHODS Use of all medications and supplements were collected from study participants at each of 4 examinations. Intraocular pressure (IOP) measurement and fundus and lens photography were done at each visit. Visual field data are available only from baseline. Photographs of the lenses, retina, and discs were graded using standard protocols by trained graders.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Incidence of age-related cataracts, macular degeneration (AMD), and high IOP for one set of analyses and incidence of supplement use for the second set of analyses.
RESULTS There was little evidence of any significant associations between supplement use and incident ocular outcomes except for a small protective effect for cortical cataracts by vitamins A and D, zinc, and multivitamins and increased odds of late AMD. Late AMD was associated with incident use of vitamins A, C, and E and zinc.
CONCLUSIONS Age-related macular degeneration seems to precede use of vitamins A, C, and E and zinc. This may reflect advice by family, friends, and health care providers about the benefits of Age-Related Eye Disease Study-like supplements.