Author(s): Tiwari A, Aryal S, Pilla S, Gong S. An amperometric urea biosensor based on covalently immobilized urease on an electrode made of hyperbranched polyester functionalized gold nanoparticles. Talanta. 2009 Jun 15;78(4-5):1401-7. doi: 10.1016/j.talanta.2009.02.038. Epub 2009 Feb 26. PMID 19362208
Journal: Talanta, Volume 78, Issue 4 5, Jun 2009
An amperometric biosensor was fabricated for the quantitative determination of urea in aqueous medium using hematein, a pH-sensitive natural dye. The urease (Urs) was covalently immobilized onto an electrode made of gold nanoparticles functionalized with hyperbranched polyester-Boltron H40 (H40-Au) coated onto an indium-tin oxide (ITO) covered glass substrate. The covalent linkage between the Urs enzyme and H40-Au nanoparticles provided the resulting enzyme electrode (Urs/H40-Au/ITO) with a high level of enzyme immobilization and excellent lifetime stability. The response studies were carried out as a function of urea concentration with amperometric and photometric measurements. The biosensor based on Urs/H40-Au/ITO as the working electrode showed a linear current response to the urea concentration ranging from 0.01 to 35 mM. The urea biosensor exhibited a sensitivity of 7.48 nA/mM with a response time of 3s. The Michaelis-Menten constant for the Urs/H40-Au/ITO biosensor was calculated to be 0.96 mM, indicating the Urs enzyme immobilized on the electrode surface had a high affinity to urea.