Author(s):Stepien KE, Han DP, Schell J, Godara P, Rha J, Carroll J. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography and adaptive optics may detect hydroxychloroquine retinal toxicity before symptomatic vision loss. Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc. 2009 Dec;107:28-33. PMID 20126479
Journal: Transactions Of The American Ophthalmological Society, Volume 107, Dec 2009
PURPOSE To describe spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and adaptive optics (AO) imaging in hydroxychloroquine retinal toxicity.
METHODS Two patients with long-term hydroxychloroquine use, subtle perifoveal ophthalmoscopic pigmentary changes, and bilateral perifoveal defects on automated Humphrey visual field (HVF) 10-2 perimetry were imaged using SD-OCT and AO.
RESULTS SD-OCT images demonstrated loss of photoreceptor inner segment/outer segment (IS/OS) junction and a downward “sink-hole” displacement of inner retinal structures in areas of hydroxychloroquine toxicity corresponding to HVF 10-2 defects and ophthalmoscopic clinical examination findings. SD-OCT irregularities in the IS/OS junction were also seen in areas not detected on HVF 10-2. AO images showed disruption of the cone photoreceptor mosaic in areas corresponding to HVF 10-2 defects and SD-OCT IS/OS junction abnormalities. Additionally, irregularities in the cone photoreceptor density and mosaic were seen in areas with normal HVF 10-2 and SD-OCT findings.
CONCLUSIONS SD-OCT and AO detected abnormalities that correlate topographically with visual field loss from hydroxychloroquine toxicity as demonstrated by HVF 10-2 and may be useful in the detection of subclinical abnormalities that precede symptoms or objective visual field loss.