Author(s): Geiduschek EK, McDowell CM. The Fibro-Inflammatory Response in the Glaucomatous Optic Nerve Head. Int J Mol Sci. 2023 Aug 26;24(17):13240. doi: 10.3390/ijms241713240. PMID 37686046
Journal: International Journal Of Molecular Sciences, Volume 24, Issue 17, Aug 2023
Glaucoma is a progressive disease and the leading cause of irreversible blindness. The limited therapeutics available are only able to manage the common risk factor of glaucoma, elevated intraocular pressure (IOP), indicating a great need for understanding the cellular mechanisms behind optic nerve head (ONH) damage during disease progression. Here we review the known inflammatory and fibrotic changes occurring in the ONH. In addition, we describe a novel mechanism of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and transforming growth factor beta-2 (TGFβ2) signaling crosstalk in the cells of the ONH that contribute to glaucomatous damage. Understanding molecular signaling within and between the cells of the ONH can help identify new drug targets and therapeutics.