Structural and Functional Changes in Non-Paraneoplastic Autoimmune Retinopathy.

PubMed ID: 37958272

Author(s): Akhavanrezayat A, Khatri A, Onghanseng NGL, Halim MS, Or C, Sredar N, Razeen M, Hasanreisoglu M, Regenold J, Thng ZX, Mohammadi SS, Jain T, Yavari N, Bazojoo V, Gupta AS, Mobasserian A, Yasar C, Than NTT, Uludag Kirimli G, Karaca I, Shin YU, Yoo WS, Ghoraba H, Do DV, Dubra A, Nguyen QD. Structural and Functional Changes in Non-Paraneoplastic Autoimmune Retinopathy. Diagnostics (Basel). 2023 Nov 3;13(21):3376. doi: 10.3390/diagnostics13213376. PMID 37958272

Journal: Diagnostics (Basel, Switzerland), Volume 13, Issue 21, Nov 2023

BACKGROUND To describe longitudinal changes in patients with non-paraneoplastic autoimmune retinopathy (npAIR) by utilizing different diagnostic modalities/tests.

METHODS The index study is a retrospective longitudinal review of sixteen eyes of eight patients from a tertiary care eye hospital diagnosed with npAIR. Multiple diagnostic modalities such as wide-angle fundus photography (WAFP), WA fundus autofluorescence (WAFAF), spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), Goldmann visual field (GVF) perimetry, microperimetry (MP), electrophysiologic testing, and adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (AOSLO) were reviewed and analyzed.

RESULTS At the baseline visits, anomalies were detected by multimodal diagnostic tests on all patients. Subjects were followed up for a median duration of 11.5 [3.0-18.7] months. Structural changes at the baseline were detected in 14 of 16 (87.5%) eyes on WAFP and WAFAF and 13 of 16 (81.2%) eyes on SD-OCT. Eight of the ten (80%) eyes that underwent AOSLO imaging depicted structural changes. Functional changes were detected in 14 of 16 (87.5%) eyes on GVF, 15 of 16 (93.7%) eyes on MP, and 11 of 16 (68.7%) eyes on full-field electroretinogram (ff-ERG). Multifocal electroretinogram (mf-ERG) and visual evoked potential (VEP) tests were performed in 14 eyes, of which 12 (85.7%) and 14 (100%) of the eyes demonstrated functional abnormalities, respectively, at baseline. Compared to all the other structural diagnostic tools, AOSLO had a better ability to demonstrate deterioration in retinal microstructures occurring at follow-ups. Functional deterioration at follow-up was detected on GVF in 8 of 10 (80%) eyes, mf-ERG in 4 of 8 (50%) eyes, and MP in 7 of 16 (43.7%) eyes. The ff-ERG and VEP were stable in the majority of cases at follow-up.

CONCLUSIONS The utilization of multimodal imaging/tests in the diagnosing and monitoring of npAIR patients can aid in identifying anomalous changes over time. Analysis of both the anatomical and functional aspects by these devices can be supportive of detecting the changes early in such patients. AOSLO shows promise as it enables the capture of high-resolution images demonstrating quantifiable changes to retinal microstructure.