Author(s): Maclaren N, Riley W, Skordis N, Atkinson M, Spillar R, Silverstein J, Klein R, Vadheim C, Rotter J. Inherited susceptibility to insulin-dependent diabetes is associated with HLA-DR1, while DR5 is protective. Autoimmunity. 1988;1(3):197-205. PMID 2979618
Journal: Autoimmunity, Volume 1, Issue 3, 1988
Of the HLA allelic associations with insulin-dependent diabetes (IDD) reported to date. DR3 and DR4 have been the most positive and DR2 the most negative. In 952 Caucasian proband patients reported here, only 57 or 6% had no DR3 or DR4 alleles. When these 57 patients were compared to 249 Caucasian controls similarly lacking DR3 and DR4 antigens, there were excesses of DR1 (P = 0.13) and DRW8 (P = 0.01) and deficiencies of DR2 (P = 0.03) and DR5 (P = 0.03) in the patient group. The most common phenotype in this group of patients was DR1/DR7 (12.3%). Only four DR-homozygous patients involving alleles other than DR3 and DR4 were found by genotyping, and all were DR1 homozygotes. Among 506 patients wuth DR3/DRX or DR4/DRX phenotypes, DR1 was more frequent (P = 0.001; Bonferronni P = 0.006), and DR2 (P = 0.001) and DR5 (P = 0.001) less frequent than 243 HLA-matched controls. Of 187 patients with a single DR3 and no DR4, DR1 was more frequent (P = 0.02), with DR2 (P = 0.001) and DR5 (P = 0.02) less frequent than 94 HLA DR-compatible controls. Among 319 patients with a single DR4 but no DR3, DR1 was again more frequent (P = 0.01) and DR2 (P = 0.001) and DR5 (P = 0.001) less frequent than 149 HLA-matched controls. We conclude that DR1 is an additional risk DR allele for IDD to that of DR3 and DR4, and DR5 an additional protective DR allele to that of DR2.