Author(s): Roy MS, Klein R. Macular edema and retinal hard exudates in African Americans with type 1 diabetes: the New Jersey 725. Arch Ophthalmol. 2001 Feb;119(2):251-9. PMID 11176988
Journal: Archives Of Ophthalmology (Chicago, Ill. : 1960), Volume 119, Issue 2, Feb 2001
OBJECTIVE To determine frequency and associated risk factors for macular edema and retinal hard exudates in hospitalized African Americans with type 1 diabetes.
SUBJECTS AND METHODS Included were 725 African Americans with type 1 diabetes who participated in the New Jersey 725. Clinical evaluations consisted of a structured clinical interview, ocular examination, stereoscopic fundus photographs, and blood pressure measurements. Presence of macular edema and hard exudates was determined via masked grading of fundus photographs. Biological evaluations included blood and urine assays.
RESULTS Of the 725 patients, 89 (12.3%) had macular edema and 149 (20.6%) had retinal hard exudates in at least 1 eye. The presence of macular edema and hard exudates was significantly associated with older age at examination, longer duration of diabetes, and severity of diabetic retinopathy. Presence of proteinuria, missing insulin injections at least once a week, and longer duration of diabetes were significantly and independently associated with macular edema. Presence of proteinuria, male sex, higher low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, and longer duration of diabetes were significantly and independently associated with severity of retinal hard exudates.
CONCLUSION Macular edema and hard exudates are common in African Americans with type 1 diabetes, particularly in patients with evidence of renal disease.