Author(s): Bunch TJ, Tian B, Seeman JL, Gabelt BT, Lin TL, Kaufman PL. Effect of daily prolonged ketamine anesthesia on intraocular pressure in monkeys. Curr Eye Res. 2008 Nov;33(11):946-53. doi: 10.1080/02713680802447121. PMID 19085377
Journal: Current Eye Research, Volume 33, Issue 11, Nov 2008
PURPOSE To determine if repeated intramuscular ketamine in monkeys on consecutive days affects intraocular pressure (IOP) and if the ketamine-induced IOP change has any relationship to systemic dehydration and/or changes in mean arterial pressure (MAP) of the animals.
METHODS Nine monkeys were studied per four protocols. IOP was determined hourly for 6 hr by Goldmann tonometry under ketamine anesthesia on 3 (protocol 1) or 5 (protocols 2 and 3) consecutive days, or on alternating days 1, 3, and 5 (protocol 4). Monkeys in protocols 3 and 4, but not in protocols 1 and 2, received subcutaneous Ringer’s fluids at the end of each 6-hr session on days 1-4 or days 1, 3, and 5; monkeys in protocols 2 and 3 received intravenous fluid infusion throughout the experiment on day 5. In protocols 2-4, MAP was measured hourly following each IOP measurement.
RESULTS Monkeys receiving ketamine but no Ringer’s fluids in protocol 1 or 2 showed significant IOP declines on days 2-3 or 2-4. The IOP declines were greater in magnitude in protocol 1 than in protocol 2. Daily subcutaneous Ringer’s fluids appeared to delay IOP declines in protocol 3. Continuous intravenous fluid infusion on day 5 variably prevented IOP declines in protocols 2 and 3. Monkeys receiving ketamine and subcutaneous fluids on alternate days in protocol 4 showed no decline in IOP. No significant relationship between IOP and MAP was observed.
CONCLUSIONS Anesthesia induced by repeated intramuscular ketamine on consecutive days may produce significant IOP declines. Systemic dehydration during the anesthesia seems to be the predominant factor contributing to the IOP reduction. However, inter-individual differences in monkeys indicate that multiple factors may be involved. This study also suggests that fluid supplementation plus alternating anesthesia with recovery days may prevent IOP reduction in monkeys resulting from daily prolonged ketamine anesthesia.