Author(s): Awua-Larbi S, Wong TY, Cotch MF, Durazo-Arvizu R, Jacobs DR Jr, Klein BE,Klein R, Lima J, Liu K, Kramer H. Retinal arteriolar caliber and urine albumin excretion: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2011 Nov;26(11):3523-8. doi: 10.1093/ndt/gfr095. Epub 2011 Mar 11. PMID 21398363
Journal: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation : Official Publication Of The European Dialysis And Transplant Association European Renal Association, Volume 26, Issue 11, Nov 2011
BACKGROUND Changes in retinal microvascular caliber, which occur prior to onset of retinopathy, may indicate presence of kidney damage.
METHODS This study examined the association between retinal arteriolar [central retinal artery equivalent (CRAE)] and venular caliber [central retinal venule equivalent (CRVE)] and presence of albuminuria (micro- or macroalbuminuria) among participants of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA), a cohort of adults aged 45-84 years without baseline clinical cardiovascular disease. During the second MESA exam, digital fundus photography was completed in 5897 participants who provided spot urine specimens. Albuminuria was defined by spot urine albumin/creatinine ratios ≥ 30 mg/g. Multivariable adjusted odds of albuminuria by quintiles of CRAE and CRVE were determined using logistic regression. Analyses were repeated after stratifying by presence of type 2 diabetes.
RESULTS Albuminuria was noted in 11.5% (n = 675) and included 584 subjects with microalbuminuria and 91 with macroalbuminuria. A significant U-shaped pattern was seen with higher prevalence of albuminuria across quintile extremes in CRAE (15.7, 8.8 and 10.6% in CRAE Quintiles 1, 3 and 5, respectively; P <0.0001). After adjustment for covariates, both narrower CRAE [odds ratios (OR) 1.55; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.17-2.04, Quintile 1 versus 3) and wider CRAE (OR 1.44; 95% CI 1.07-1.93, Quintile 5 versus 3) were significantly associated with albuminuria. Associations appeared substantially stronger in adults with than without type 2 diabetes but the interaction term for diabetes and CRAE on presence of albuminuria did not meet statistical significance (P = 0.3). No association was noted between CRVE quintiles and albuminuria.
CONCLUSIONS Albuminuria is associated with narrower and wider arteriolar caliber. Future studies should determine whether variation in arteriolar caliber predicts incident albuminuria and whether associations are mediated by hypertension and diabetes. Such information could further clarify early microvascular processes in the pathogenesis of kidney disease.