CD40 promotes the development of early diabetic retinopathy in mice.

Publications // Sheibani Lab // Oct 01 2014

PubMed ID: 25015056

Author(s): Portillo JA, Greene JA, Okenka G, Miao Y, Sheibani N, Kern TS, Subauste CS. CD40 promotes the development of early diabetic retinopathy in mice. Diabetologia. 2014 Oct;57(10):2222-31. PMID 25015056

Journal: Diabetologia, Volume 57, Issue 10, Oct 2014

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS Microangiopathy is a leading complication of diabetes that commonly affects the retina. Degenerate capillaries are a central feature of diabetic retinopathy. An inflammatory process has been linked to the development of diabetic retinopathy but its regulation is incompletely understood. Cluster of differentiation (CD) 40 is a member of the TNF receptor superfamily that promotes the development of certain inflammatory disorders. The role of CD40 in diabetic microangiopathy is unknown.

METHODS B6 and Cd40−/− mice were administered streptozotocin to induce diabetes. Leucostasis was assessed using fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated concanavalin A. Retinal Icam1 and Cd40 mRNA levels were examined using real-time PCR. Protein nitration was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Histopathology was examined in the retinal vasculature. CD40 expression was assessed by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry. Intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and nitric oxide synthase 2 (NOS2) were examined by immunoblot and/or flow cytometry. Nitric oxide production was examined by immunoblot and Griess reaction.

RESULTS In mouse models of diabetes, Cd40−/− mice exhibited reduced retinal leucostasis and did not develop capillary degeneration in comparison with B6 mice. Diabetic Cd40−/− mice had diminished ICAM-1 upregulation and decreased protein nitration. Cd40 mRNA levels were increased in the retinas of diabetic B6 mice compared with non-diabetic controls. CD40 expression increased in retinal Müller cells, endothelial cells and microglia of diabetic animals. CD40 stimulation upregulated ICAM-1 in retinal endothelial cells and Müller cells. CD40 ligation upregulated NOS2 and nitric oxide production by Müller cells.

CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION CD40-deficient mice were protected fromthe development of diabetic retinopathy. These mice exhibited diminished inflammatory responses linked to diabetic retinopathy. CD40 stimulation of retinal cells triggered these pro-inflammatory responses.