Author(s): Bumah VV, Aboualizadeh E, Masson-Meyers DS, Eells JT, Enwemeka CS, Hirschmugl CJ. Spectrally resolved infrared microscopy and chemometric tools to reveal the interaction between blue light (470nm) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. J Photochem Photobiol B. 2017 Feb;167:150-157. doi: 10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2016.12.030. Epub 2016 Dec 23. PMID 28064075
Journal: Journal Of Photochemistry And Photobiology. B, Biology, Volume 167, Feb 2017
Blue light inactivates methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), a Gram-positive antibiotic resistant bacterium that leads to fatal infections; however, the mechanism of bacterial death remains unclear. In this paper, to uncover the mechanism underlying the bactericidal effect of blue light, a combination of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and chemometric tools is employed to detect the photoreactivity of MRSA and its distinctive pathway toward apoptosis after treatment. The mechanism of action of UV light and vancomycin against MRSA is also investigated to support the findings. Principal component analysis followed by linear discriminant analysis (PCA- LDA) is employed to reveal clustering of five groups of MRSA samples, namely untreated (control I), untreated and incubated at ambient air (control II), irradiated with 470nm blue light, irradiated with 253.5 UV light, and vancomycin-treated MRSA. Loadings plot from PCA-LDA analysis reveals important functional groups in proteins (1683, 1656, 1596, 1542cm-1), lipids (1743, 1409cm-1), and nucleic acids region of the spectrum (1060, 1087cm-1) that are responsible for the classification of blue light irradiated spectra and control spectra. Cluster vector plots and scores plot reveals that UV light-irradiated spectra are the most biochemically similar to blue light- irradiated spectra; however, some wavenumbers experience a shift. The shifts between blue light and UV light irradiated loadings plot at νasym PO2- band (from 1228 to 1238cm-1), DNA backbone (from 970 to 966cm-1) and base pairing vibration of DNA (from 1717 to 1712cm-1) suggest distinctive changes in DNA conformation in response to irradiation. Our findings indicate that irradiation of MRSA with 470nm light induces A-DNA cleavage and that B-DNA is more resistant to damage by blue light. Blue light and UV light treatment of MRSA are complementary and distinct from the known antimicrobial effect of vancomycin. Moreover, it is known that UV-induced cleavage of DNA predominantly targets B-DNA, which is in agreement with the FTIR findings. Overall the results suggest that the combination of light and vancomycin could be a more robust approach in treating MRSA infections.