Author(s): Ibrahim AS, Saleh H, El-Shafey M, Hussein KA, El-Masry K, Baban B, Sheibani N, Wang MH, Tawfik A, Al-Shabrawey M. Targeting of 12/15-Lipoxygenase in retinal endothelial cells, but not in monocytes/macrophages, attenuates high glucose-induced retinal leukostasis. Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Biol Lipids. 2017 Jun;1862(6):636-645. doi: 10.1016/j.bbalip.2017.03.010. Epub 2017 Mar 27. PMID 28351645
Journal: Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta. Molecular And Cell Biology Of Lipids, Volume 1862, Issue 6, Jun 2017
AIMS Our previous studies have established a role for 12/15-lipoxygenase (LO) in mediating the inflammatory response in diabetic retinopathy (DR). However, the extent at which the local or systemic induction of 12/15-LO activity involved is unclear. Thus, the current study aimed to characterize the relative contribution of retinal endothelial versus monocytic/macrophagic 12/15-LO to inflammatory responses in DR.
MATERIALS & METHODS We first generated a clustered heat map for circulating bioactive lipid metabolites in the plasma of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice using liquid chromatography coupled with mass-spectrometry (LC-MS) to evaluate changes in circulating 12/15-LO activity. This was followed by comparing the in vitro mouse endothelium-leukocytes interaction between leukocytes isolated from 12/15-LO knockout (KO) versus those isolated from wild type (WT) mice using the myeloperoxidase (MPO) assay. Finally, we examined the effects of knocking down or inhibiting endothelial 12/15-LO on diabetes-induced endothelial cell activation and ICAM-1 expression.
RESULTS Analysis of plasma bioactive lipids’ heat map revealed that the activity of circulating 12/15-LO was not altered by diabetes as evident by no significant changes in the plasma levels of major metabolites derived from 12/15-lipoxygenation of different PUFAs, including linoleic acid (13-HODE), arachidonic acid (12- and 15- HETEs), eicosapentaenoic acid (12- and 15- HEPEs), or docosahexaenoic acid (17-HDoHE). Moreover, leukocytes from 12/15-LO KO mice displayed a similar increase in adhesion to high glucose (HG)-activated endothelial cells as do leukocytes from WT mice. Furthermore, abundant proteins of 12-LO and 15-LO were detected in human retinal endothelial cells (HRECs), while it was undetected (15-LO) or hardly detectable (12-LO) in human monocyte-like U937 cells. Inhibition or knock down of endothelial 12/15-LO in HRECs blocked HG-induced expression of ICAM-1, a well-known identified important molecule for leukocyte adhesion in DR.
CONCLUSION Our data support that endothelial, rather than monocytic/macrophagic, 12/15-LO has a critical role in hyperglycemia-induced ICAM-1 expression, leukocyte adhesion, and subsequent local retinal barrier dysfunction. This may facilitate the development of more precisely targeted treatment strategies for DR.