Association between Dietary Xanthophyll (Lutein and Zeaxanthin) Intake and Early Age-Related Macular Degeneration: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study.

PubMed ID: 28332910

Author(s): Lin H, Mares JA, LaMonte MJ, Brady WE, Sahli MW, Klein R, Klein BEK, Nie J, Millen AE. Association between dietary xanthophyll (lutein and zeaxanthin) intake and early age-related macular degeneration: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2017 Oct;24(5):311-322. doi: 10.1080/09286586.2017.1290259. Epub 2017 Mar 23. PMID 28332910

Journal: Ophthalmic Epidemiology, Volume 24, Issue 5, Oct 2017

PURPOSE To examine the association between xanthophyll intake and prevalent early age-related macular degeneration (AMD) using data from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study (n = 10,295). Potential effect modification by genetic polymorphisms and biomarkers of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) metabolism was explored.

METHODS Xanthophyll intake was assessed at visit 1 (1987-1989) using food frequency questionnaires. Prevalent early AMD was assessed at visit 3 (1993-1995) via retinal photographs. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for AMD by quintiles of xanthophyll intake, adjusted for age, sex, race, field center, and pack-years of smoking. To evaluate effect modification, the association between tertiles (T) of xanthophyll intake and AMD was stratified by complement factor H (CFH) rs1061170 and age-related maculopathy susceptibility 2 (ARMS2) rs10490924 genotypes, as well as by median cutpoints of HDL biomarkers.

RESULTS Xanthophyll intake was not associated with AMD in the overall sample, Caucasians (n = 8257), or African-Americans (n = 2038). Exploratory analyses observed that the association between xanthophyll intake and AMD varied statistically significantly by CFH rs1061170 genotype among Caucasians (p for interaction = 0.045) but not African Americans. No interactions were observed between xanthophyll intake and ARMS2 rs10490924. Moreover, higher xanthophyll intake was associated with decreased odds of AMD among participants with lower HDL (OR = 0.79, 95% CI 0.57-1.09) but not higher HDL (p for interaction = 0.048).

CONCLUSION Xanthophyll intake was not associated with early AMD. Further studies to investigate this association by genetic susceptibility or variations in HDL metabolism are needed.