Author(s): Cheng Q, Saaddine JB, Klein R, Rothenberg R, Chou CF, Il’yasova D. Early age-related macular degeneration with cardiovascular and renal comorbidities: an analysis of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2005-2008. Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2017 Dec;24(6):413-419. doi: 10.1080/09286586.2017.1337911. Epub 2017 Sep 11. PMID 28891729
PURPOSE A cross sectional study was designed to examine the relationship of early age-related macular degeneration (AMD) with comorbidities of cardiovascular and renal conditions in the representative population using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2005-2008.
METHODS Participants (≥40 years) who underwent retinal photography were included. Early AMD was defined by the retinal digital images. The comorbidities were self-reported stroke and heart disease (HD), including angina pectoris (AP), coronary heart disease (CHD), congestive heart failure (CHF), and myocardial infarction (MI). Chronic kidney disease (CKD) was determined based on self-report, estimation of glomerular filtration rate (GFR), or the level of urine albumin.
RESULTS The age-adjusted odds ratio (OR) and 95% CI for having early AMD for persons with the selected conditions were: 2.6 (1.9, 3.6) for any type of HD. When the conditions were considered separately, ORs (95% CIs) were: 2.0 (1.2, 3.4) for AP; 2.5 (1.6, 3.8) for CHD; 2.4 (1.6, 3.6) for MI; 2.3 (1.3, 3.9) for CHF; 3.3 (2.2, 5.0) for stroke; and 2.4 (1.8, 3.2) for CKD. Covariable-adjusted ORs (AOR) were attenuated for all examined conditions, but remained statistically significant. Having any single condition (AOR [95%CI]: 2.7 [1.5, 4.8]) was significantly associated with early AMD, as was having ≥ 2 conditions (AOR [95%CI]: 5.2 [3.0, 9.0]). The strongest association was between early AMD and the combination of HD and stroke (AOR [95% CI]: 6.3 [2.9, 13.8]).
CONCLUSION Cardiovascular and renal comorbidities are associated with early AMD in a representative sample of the US general population.