PubMed ID: 31412233

Author(s): Braffett BH, Lorenzi GM, Cowie CC, Gao X, Bainbridge KE, Cruickshanks KJ, Kramer JR, Gubitosi-Klug RA, Larkin ME, Barnie A, Lachin JM, Schade DS; DCCT/EDIC Research Group. Risk factors for hearing impairment in type 1 diabetes. Endocr Pract. 2019 Dec;25(12):1243-1254. doi: 10.4158/EP-2019-0193. Epub 2019 Aug 14. PMID 31412233

Journal: Endocrine Practice : Official Journal Of The American College Of Endocrinology And The American Association Of Clinical Endocrinologists, Volume 25, Issue 12, Dec 2019

Objective: Studies have demonstrated that glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) is a significant predictor of hearing impairment in type 1 diabetes. We identified additional factors associated with hearing impairment in participants with type 1 diabetes from the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial and its observational follow-up, the Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (DCCT/EDIC) study. Methods: A total of 1,150 DCCT/EDIC participants were recruited for the Hearing Study. A medical history, physical measurements, and a self-administered hearing questionnaire were obtained. Audiometry was performed by study-certified personnel and assessed centrally. Logistic regression models assessed the association of risk factors and comorbidities with speech- and high-frequency hearing impairment. Results: Mean age was 55 ± 7 years, duration of diabetes 34 ± 5 years, and DCCT/EDIC HbA1c 7.9 ± 0.9% (63 mmol/mol). In multivariable models, higher odds of speech-frequency impairment were significantly associated with older age, higher HbA1c, history of noise exposure, male sex, and higher triglycerides. Higher odds of high-frequency impairment were associated with older age, male sex, history of noise exposure, higher skin intrinsic florescence (SIF) as a marker of tissue glycation, higher HbA1c, nonprofessional/nontechnical occupations, sedentary activity, and lower low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol. Among participants who previously completed computed tomography and carotid ultrasonography, coronary artery calcification (CAC) >0 and carotid intima-medial thickness were significantly associated with high-but not speech-frequency impairment. Conclusion: Consistent with previous reports, male sex, age, several metabolic factors, and noise exposure are independently associated with hearing impairment. The association with SIF further emphasizes the importance of glycemia-as a modifiable risk factor-over time. In addition, the macrovascular contribution of CAC is novel and important. Abbreviations: AER = albumin excretion rate; CAC = coronary artery calcification; CVD = cardiovascular disease; DCCT/EDIC = Diabetes Control and Complications Trial/Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications; eGFR = estimated glomerular filtration rate; ETDRS = Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study; HbA1c = glycated hemoglobin; HDL = high-density lipoprotein; IMT = intima-media thickness; LDL = low-density lipoprotein; NHANES = National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey; OR = odds ratio; SIF = skin intrinsic fluorescence; T1D = type 1 diabetes.