Complications of Intra-Arterial tPA for Iatrogenic Branch Retinal Artery Occlusion: A Case Report through Multimodal Imaging and Literature Review.

Mihai Mititelu // Publications // Sep 13 2021

PubMed ID: 34577886

Author(s): Dalzotto K, Richards P, Boulter TD, Kay M, Mititelu M. Complications of Intra-Arterial tPA for Iatrogenic Branch Retinal Artery Occlusion: A Case Report through Multimodal Imaging and Literature Review. Medicina (Kaunas). 2021 Sep 13;57(9). pii: 963. doi: 10.3390/medicina57090963. PMID 34577886

Journal: Medicina (Kaunas, Lithuania), Volume 57, Issue 9, Sep 2021

Background and Objectives: To document, through multimodal imaging, the post-procedural clinical course and visual outcome of a patient who received intra-arterial tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) for acute iatrogenic branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO), and to review the literature and guidelines regarding the use of tPA for retinal arterial occlusions. Methods: A 28-year-old female patient who sustained an iatrogenic BRAO and subsequently received intra-arterial tPA was followed through her post-interventional course of 3 months with serial exams and multimodal imaging, including color fundus photography, visual field testing, spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), and OCT angiography (OCT-A). Results: A patient with history of left internal cerebral artery (ICA) aneurysm and baseline visual acuity (VA) of 20/20 developed an acutely symptomatic BRAO after undergoing a neuroendovascular procedure and was acutely treated with tPA through the left ophthalmic artery. At two weeks follow-up, a central posterior pole hemorrhage was noted although VA was preserved. A superior altitudinal defect was shown on automated perimetry. VA dropped to 20/50 at 7 weeks follow-up and hyperreflective material deep to the attachment between the posterior hyaloid and the internal limiting membrane (ILM) consistent with hemorrhage was noted on SD-OCT. At 11 weeks follow-up, VA returned to 20/20, SD-OCT revealed a membrane bridging the foveal depression, OCT-A showed decreased vascularity in the inferior macula, and the visual field defect was stable by automated perimetry. Conclusions: Intraocular hemorrhage is a possible complication of intra-arterial tPA administration for BRAO, and a careful analysis of risks, benefits, and goals of this procedure must be considered by both provider and patient before such intervention.