Author(s): Xie R, Wang Y, Gong S. External stimuli-responsive nanoparticles for spatially and temporally controlled delivery of CRISPR-Cas genome editors. Biomater Sci. 2021 Sep 14;9(18):6012-6022. doi: 10.1039/d1bm00558h. Review. PMID 34286726
The CRISPR-Cas9 system is a powerful tool for genome editing, which can potentially lead to new therapies for genetic diseases. To date, various viral and non-viral delivery systems have been developed for the delivery of CRISPR-Cas9 in vivo. However, spatially and temporally controlled genome editing is needed to enhance the specificity in organs/tissues and minimize the off-target effects of editing. In this review, we summarize the state-of-the-art non-viral vectors that exploit external stimuli (i.e., light, magnetic field, and ultrasound) for spatially and temporally controlled genome editing and their in vitro and in vivo applications.