A Case of Rhegmatogenous Retinal Detachment in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia.

PubMed ID: 38437797

Author(s): Maganti N, Crabtree GS, Chang JS, Schildroth KR. A Case of Rhegmatogenous Retinal Detachment in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia. Retin Cases Brief Rep. 2024 Mar 4. doi: 10.1097/ICB.0000000000001562. Online ahead of print. PMID 38437797

Journal: Retinal Cases & Brief Reports, Mar 2024

PURPOSE Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a myeloproliferative neoplasm characterized by uncontrolled proliferation of granulocytes, caused the BCR-ABL1 fusion gene. While ocular manifestations of CML are rare, the presentations can range from asymptomatic to sudden vision loss. CML associated ocular findings that have been reported include retinal hemorrhages, leukemic infiltrates, and optic disc edema, but a rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) in the setting of CML has not been described.

METHODS Case report.

RESULTS A 21-year-old man presented with intermittent vision loss in his right eye, tinnitus in the right ear, and abdominal distension. Work up revealed significant leukocytosis, splenomegaly, and a positive BCR-ABL1 mutation. He was diagnosed with CML and started on systemic therapy. Exam of the right eye revealed a large intraocular mass. After two weeks of systemic treatment, the large elevation in the right eye had improved, allowing visualization of diffuse subretinal whitening. At follow up, an RRD secondary to an atrophic hole in an area of prior subretinal infiltrates were noted. He underwent repair with a scleral buckle. Postoperative course was complicated by redetachment with proliferative vitreoretinopathy, which led to an unrepairable detachment, despite multiple surgeries with silicone oil tamponade.

CONCLUSIONS Ocular findings related to CML are rare, with the lowest incidence when compared to other leukemias, and are associated with worse outcomes. Posterior segment findings include intraretinal hemorrhages, Roth spots, and retinal infiltrates. This unique case describes an RRD in CML retinopathy with an aggressive course and poor anatomical result.