Author(s): Alharbi Y, Kapur A, Felder M, Barroilhet L, Pattnaik BR, Patankar MS. Oxidative stress induced by the anti-cancer agents, plumbagin, and atovaquone, inhibits ion transport through Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase. Sci Rep. 2020 Nov 11;10(1):19585. doi: 10.1038/s41598-020-76342-5. PMID 33177587
Journal: Scientific Reports, Volume 10, Issue 1, Nov 2020
Oxidative stress inhibits Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA), the ion channel that maintains membrane potential. Here, we investigate the role of oxidative stress-mediated by plumbagin and atovaquone in the inhibition of NKA activity. We confirm that plumbagin and atovaquone inhibit the proliferation of three human (OVCAR-3, SKOV-3, and TYKNu) and one mouse (ID8) ovarian cancer cell lines. The oxygen radical scavenger, N-acetylcysteine (NAC), attenuates the chemotoxicity of plumbagin and atovaquone. Whole-cell patch clamping demonstrates that plumbagin and atovaquone inhibit outward and the inward current flowing through NKA in SKOV-3 and OVCAR-3. Although both drugs decrease cellular ATP; providing exogenous ATP (5 mM) in the pipet solution used during patch clamping did not recover NKA activity in the plumbagin or atovaquone treated SKOV-3 and OVCAR-3 cells. However, pretreatment of the cells with NAC completely abrogated the NKA inhibitory activity of plumbagin and atovaquone. Exposure of the SKOV-3 cells to either drug significantly decreases the expression of NKA. We conclude that oxidative stress caused by plumbagin and atovaquone degrades NKA, resulting in the inability to maintain ion transport. Therefore, when evaluating compounds that induce oxidative stress, it is important to consider the contribution of NKA inhibition to their cytotoxic effects on tumor cells.